If you use whole coffee beans to make coffee, you may be wondering if it matters how coarse or fine you grind the beans. Are you grinding your coffee too fine or not fine enough? Grind size does affect the flavor of your coffee, but how it affects it isn’t quite how you think.
Simply put, the size of the grind determines how long the coffee will take to extract. A finer grind creates more surface area for the water to run through. It can create a stronger flavor, but this is mainly determined by the extraction time and, not the grind itself.
That’s the quick answer to why a fine grind can taste stronger, but it’s actually more complicated than that. You probably don’t think about the chemistry involved in brewing coffee, but there’s a lot that goes on when you make a cup of coffee. Keep reading to learn how grinding coffee affects the flavor and brewing of coffee.
How does grind size affect coffee?
Now that you understand a little of the science of how a coffee grind affects the flavor of coffee, let’s dig a little deeper into the science. When coffee is brewed, it transforms the soluble form of roasted coffee beans into a liquid form that you can drink.
Basically, a finer grind results in a more densely packed soluble, which slows down the extraction time. With fine ground coffee, water is exposed to more of the coffee grounds for a longer period of time, which can make it taste stronger.
When water passes through the ground coffee, it pulls out the flavor compounds in the beans. The more time the water has to extract the flavors, the stronger the coffee will taste. At first thought, you would think that smaller particles would make the coffee grounds more permeable or easier for water to pass through.
Note that, when fine ground coffee is brewed it is densely packed. This makes it harder for water to pass through. The extraction process is slower, and the surface area is also much larger, exposing the water to more coffee particles as it passes through.
Additionally, a fine grind is denser and takes up less space. If you measure your coffee with a scoop, it may seem like you are using the exact same amount of coffee, but you are actually adding more coffee when you use a fine grind.
What happens if you grind coffee too fine?
Finely ground coffee implies over-extraction. Otherwise stated, the sweet portion of coffee is extracted first, and the rest settles as the residue.
This approach doesn’t let you experience the expected flavor. Remember that the extraction process is associated with the oil in coffee beans. It is this degree of oil left in the coffee powder that influences its flavor.
For some coffee types, finely ground coffee will work. However, in most cases, it will turn the coffee bitter.
How does grind size affect each brewing method?
How a grind affects the flavor of coffee is largely based on the brewing method. The flavor of coffee is determined by the roast, grind size, and how it is prepared. When it comes to choosing an extraction method, there are three main factors to consider including the extraction ratio, the amount of water pressure used during the extraction, and the amount of time water is in contact with the coffee grinds. Different brewing methods use different amounts of pressure, contact, and time.
In general, a fine grind takes longer to extract than a coarse ground coffee. A longer extraction time typically makes coffee taste stronger. An extraction time that is too long or too short for a particular grind can impact the flavor of the coffee.
This is why it’s important to pick the appropriate grind for the brewing method you plan to use. If fine ground coffee is brewed for too long, it can be over-brewed, resulting in a strong, bitter-tasting coffee. Likewise, if a coarse ground coffee is brewed too quickly, it won’t have enough time to extract all the flavors.
Grind Size Chart
Every grind size of coffee is appropriate for a specific type of coffee. Perhaps, it also varies in terms of flavor.
Here’s a grind size chart that helps you determine the outcome you’d get.
|Grind Size||Brewing Approach||Size Example|
|Coarse||French Press||Sea salt|
|Medium-coarse||Chemex Coffee Maker||Hard sand|
|Extra coarse||Cold brew or Cowboy Coffee||Pepper|
|Medium||Aeropress (at least 3 minutes of brew time), Drip coffee (flat bottom)||Regular table salt|
|Fine||Espresso, Aeropress (at lowest brew time)||Soft or grounded sugar|
|Medium-fine||Aeropress (moderate brew time)||Grounded or fine or soft sand|
|Extra fine||Turkish coffee||Any flour|
If you already have a coffee-making machine at home, you can use this table to determine the grind size that you can use. Perhaps, a coarsely ground coffee doesn’t work in an Aeropress machine.
Get the coffee prep right!
Brewing method guidelines for coffee grinds
In order to avoid over or under-extraction, it’s important to select the best coffee brewing method for the type of grind you plan to use. For coarse ground coffee, a slower extraction is generally recommended. For fine ground coffee, a faster extraction method is best.
Drip coffee maker
With a drip coffee maker water slowly drips through the coffee grinds. This is ideal for a coffee grind that is coarse to medium-coarse.
Single-cup coffee maker
Single-cup coffee makers work the same way as traditional drip coffee makers. Water is dripped through the single-cup coffee filter into the cup below. A coarse or medium-coarse coffee works best for this brewing method.
A french press slowly steeps coffee over the course of a few minutes. Then the grounds are pressed down, leaving the liquid coffee on top. Because this is a slow immersion method, it can lead to over-extraction if you use a grind that is too fine. A coarse grind is recommended for brewing coffee with a french press.
Pour-over coffee is another immersion method for brewing coffee. Because the coffee isn’t dripped over the coffee grinds but rather poured through, the water remains in contact with the coffee for longer. This method can cause some of the grinds to be over-extracted while other grinds to be under-extracted. To create the most consistent flavor, a course or medium grind works best.
Espresso is made by forcing hot pressurized water through finely compacted coffee grounds quickly. It is a fast, high-pressure brewing method. It’s ideal for finely ground coffee due to the amount of pressure used and the fast extraction time.
Burr vs. blade grinders
A burr grinder produces finely ground coffee with stable extraction. As a result, flavors remain in it. Contrarily, a blade grinder produces a coarse, uneven texture that lacks the right level of extraction and affects the flavor as well.
Most of us enjoy grinding coffee at our homes. In such instances, you need to know if you’d need a blade or burr grinder for your homes. How to identify the best grinder type?
Burr grinders are renowned for their uniform rotators that consistently grind coffee and retain oils in beans. The best part about using them is the regulation of heat level.
Here’s our list of handpicked burr grinders that we’d recommend – List of burr grinders
After using blade grinders for years, it’s evident that it poses troubles in regulating temperature while grinding beans. Beans are ground in an uneven manner. As a result, oils retain only in some of them. Another problem faced is the pace of the grinding process. It grinds unbelievably fast, and this results in extreme friction.
What is the best brewing method for fine-ground coffee?
Choosing the right brewing method for a fine ground coffee can make all the difference in how it tastes. Fine ground coffee is best brewed with a fast extraction method.
As a general rule, fine ground coffee should be extracted quickly. It is often used in espresso as it uses high pressure and a fast extraction process. By speeding up the brewing time, the coffee doesn’t end up over-extracted, too strong, or bitter tasting.
Tips for brewing fine ground coffee
Measure coffee grounds by weight.
It is hard to estimate how much coffee you are using when measuring by volume. To get the most consistent flavor, it’s best to measure fine-ground coffee by weight instead of volume.
Use the best roast for fine ground coffee
The way coffee tastes is not just based on how you grind it, the roast is also important. Since fine ground coffee is usually made in an espresso machine, using a dark roast espresso coffee may work best. Lighter roast coffees tend to taste weak and with less flavor when used in an espresso machine.
Experiment with the coffee ratio
Using a finer grind can make your coffee taste stronger. To tone down the strong flavor, try experimenting with how much coffee you use to make your coffee. You may find a little goes a long way with a fine ground coffee. The flavor may be just as strong, but taste better with a reduced coffee to water ratio.